Automated testing

Magnetic Particle and Ultrasonic Inspection System


Automated line for magnetic particle and ultrasonic testing of railway wheel rim, hub, disk and flange to be integrated into the wheel inspection station.

The line includes:

  • Magnetic particle inspection equipment for in-production testing of railway wheels for the presence of surface defects by fluorescent-magnetic technique in accordance with EN 13262, ISO 6933, ААR M107, DIN EN ISO-9934-1,2,3, GOST 10791.
  • Ultrasonic testing system ensures inspection of wheels according to EN 13262 & AAR M 107/208, GOST 10791, followed by return of tested wheels to the finished product acceptance facility.

The line solves the following tasks:

  • conformity to quality control requirements for wheel products as per GOST 10791-2011, with test productivity of 25 wheels/hour;
  • conformity to quality control requirements for machined wheel centers having a flange, as per TUU 35.2-23365425-640:2009 &TU U 35.2-23365425-643:2009, with test productivity of 20 wheel centers/hour;
  • compliance with quality control requirements for machined locomotive wheels with outer diameter of the rolling circle up to 1350 mm, with test productivity of 10 - 20 wheels/hour, depending on the product size range and specific standard requirements;
  • compliance with quality control requirements for machined freight car wheels of American railways with Ø28"÷ 43" and test productivity of 20 - 25 wheels/hour;
  • test result data communication to a single server of the inspection station, followed by generation of test reports.




Wet fluorescent magnetic particle testing of railway axles


UMPKOS-38 system is designed for magnetic particle inspection of railcar wheels axles during production and after repair.

The system is able to detect both longitudinal and transverse surface flaws (‘B’ sensitivity level as per GOST 21105) in accordance with EN 13261, GOST 31334, RD 32.144-2000, by wet fluorescent magnetic particle technique, using AC combined magnetizing (circular, polar). The system provides 100% inspection of the entire axle surface, except for ends.

This stationary-type system can be either integrated into the workshop process line or operated independently as a stand-alone MT station. Magnetic fluid is made of finely-cleaned degassed water, free from mechanical impurities and fat inclusions.

Test object specifications:

Axles with the below parameters are subject to testing by the system:

  • maximum diameter – 390 mm;
  • minimum diameter of axle journal – ... mm;
  • maximum length – 2500 mm;
  • minimum length – 1500 mm;
  • temperature of test object: +3 °С to +45 °С.



SNK KP-8 automated system for integrated nondestructive testing of railcar wheelsets


Purpose

  • The System is intended for detection of both surface and inside flaws in freight railcar wheelsets, as well as for measurement of flaw depth and coordinates;
  • Automated inspection is performed on the wheel sets with new machined wheels and repaired axle.

Features

  • The System is used for automated UT, EMAT and ET of railcar wheelsets at repair plants that assemble and examine the newly formed wheelsets;
  • Inspections of the freight railcar wheelsets performed by the System are aimed at confirmatory testing or detection of the existing flaws of in-service or repair origin in the wheelset axle, wheel disk, remand flange, as well as at determining the flaw locations;
  • The System carries out ultrasonic and eddy current inspection of used wheelset components to be further examined or repaired;
  • Testing productivity is no less than ten (10) wheelsets/hour provided that they are smoothly fed to the test position.

Benefits

The use of automated wheelset inspection System allows increasing the testing productivity and reliability by several times due to simultaneous operation of multiple channels. Not only detected flaws but also all process data are fully recorded by the System during inspections. This helps to avoid NDT inspector’s mistake or negligence, and enables to make a detailed analysis of test results at any time.





Uniscan Luch OS-4 system for automated ultrasonic inspection of railway axles during production


Purpose

  • Main purpose of the system is to find all kinds of defects in railway axle body according to RD32.144-2000, EN 13261, М101, DSTU 31334 & BN 918275;
  • The system is able to examine machined or semi-machined axles during their production.

Features

  • Ultrasonic testing is automatically performed from the radial surface by immersion technique;
  • Axle to be tested is fully placed into the immersion tank, where it is rotated by central clamping devices, and scanning is performed during linear motion of UT scanner along the axle;
  • The system estimates equivalent sizes and depths of the defects;
  • Axle is inspected along its entire length, except for dead zones in center and bolt holes;
  • Testing facility has its own closed-circuit system of immersion liquid intake, supply and purification.

Benefits

  • Design of the system is compact and ergonomic;
  • The system can be either integrated into the production line or operated as a stand-alone inspection station;
  • Metal structure test is also provided to check the structure conformity to applicable standards;
  • High productivity of the system is due to absence of multiplexing schemes in eight scanning modules. Time required for inspection of one axle is up to 8 min.




PSh-11 ERW system for nondestructive testing of pipes


Purpose

  • The system performs a comprehensive automated ultrasonic inspection of welds in longitudinally welded small-diameter pipes during their production;
  • Inner and outer longitudinal defects, as well as residual inside and outside flash are subject to detection in accordance with API Spec 5CT, GOST R 52203-2004, TU 14-3R-27-2000, TU 14-3R-28-2001, TU 14-3R-29-2002, TU 14-3R-31-2005.

Features

  • The system is to be installed immediately downstream the ERW mill and flash trimmer before the local weld zone heat treatment station;
  • It comprises a fusion- and near-weld zone flaw detection module, as well as pipe profile measurement module in heat-affected area;
  • Pipes are supplied to the inspection station at a linear speed up to 1 m/s.

Benefits

  • Heavy-duty equipment capable of operating in harsh industrial environment, such as high temperatures up to 250 °С in test area, and ample scaling;
  • Availability of flaw marker for defective pipe sections, and sending of ‘Reject’ alarms to the production line;
  • Fully automated inspection process, practically unattended by operator.



SNK OS-3 system performs 100% ultrasonic and eddy current testing of rail axles, then analyses testing results and makes a decision about axle rejection. The testing process is completely automated, including axle loading-unloading from the testing site.

One of the system main advantages is the application of two testing techniques: ultrasonic (UT) – intended for testing the rail axles metal structure and detecting internal defects; eddy current (ET) – intended for testing the radial surfaces and hollow (radius) chamfers of the rail axle for surface defects (cracks, fine cracks) with the opening from 10 µm and minimal depth 0.5 mm.

Main specifications:

  • testing time, no more than – 6 minutes;
  • in-line testing results output;
  • storage of complete testing results in electronic format, possibility of subsequent viewing and analysis, statistical reports creation.

The system applies all obligatory and additional techniques of acceptance ultrasonic testing, according to RD, to every testing axle. As a result, the metal structure testing and testing for internal defects absence of both longitudinal and transverse directions are provided.

SNK OS-3 automated non-destructive rail axles testing system during their production

Metal structure is estimated by comparing echo-signal amplitude from the opposite axle end during ensounding from every end surface by longitudinal waves in axial direction with echo-signal amplitude in the standard sample (Т1 technique), and also by echo images technique from the cylindrical surface in radial direction – by estimating the bottom signal attenuation (Т2 technique).

 Testing for internal defects absence is carried out with the help of echo pulse techniques:

  • А1 – from every end surface by longitudinal waves in axial direction;
  • А2 – from radial surfaces by longitudinal waves in radial direction;
  • А3 – from radial surfaces by transverse waves in axial direction.

The system performs 100% ultrasonic testing, then analyses testing results and makes a decision about axle rejection, and also generates a complete testing report in electronic format. Short report can be printed as well. All ultrasonic testing results in the form of B-scans via all channels for every inspected axle are stored on a hard disk, but it is also possible to archive them on CDs.

Testing process is totally automated. An operator should only press "TESTING" button, and the system itself will be incorporated in the customer's manufacturing line. Testing sensitivity is set up by DGS diagrams. It is possible to plot new DGS curves and correct them for account taken of the probe wear influence. One axle testing time is less than 6 minutes. As a result, the throughput capacity of up to 10 axles per hour is reached. Light and sound alarm goes off when inadmissible defects are detected.

The axle is loaded on the testing site from the entry chute with the help of a robot-transfer. On the testing site a rail with scanners is lowered to the axle, the encoder is input.

The probes are input in the testing object, the couplant (industrial oil) is supplied, the axle starts rotating and the probes begin moving along the testing object. After the axle has done one full turn, the couplant is supplied, and frames with probes start shifting along the axle. At this, probes makes spiral trajectory with 7 mm scanning pitch along the axle surface what makes it possible to perform uniform ensounding of the whole testing object. When the probe reaches an end of its testing area, its frame input is switched off and after one full turn the probe is taken away from the axle. At the same time, other probes continue testing.

Датчики системы СНК ОСЬ-3

During scanning process data are continuously acquired via all channels – from every transducer. All data are accumulated in the control computer and are stored in its memory.

After all probes have scanned their testing areas, they are returned in the initial position. The rail with scanners is taken aside and the axle itself is removed from the testing site to the unloading chute by a robot-transfer.

Meanwhile, control computer processes data outputs a short testing report and stores complete results in the database. All stored data can be viewed on the documentation computer in any moment. Here it is possible to get in-depth information about every detected defect:

  • defect spatial orientation;
  • defect coordinates;
  • echo-signal amplitude from the defect;
  • defect length;
  • equivalent area and diameter of the detected defect.

Интерфейс ПО системы СНК ОСЬ-3

The system allows to create databases of the inspected items. It is also possible to archive data on CDs or other carriers at the customer's will.

Special construction of probes carriers makes it possible to create reliable, and above all stable acoustic coupling between the probe and testing object what, in its turn, allows to neglect the surface defects (such as scratches, chips, compression marks), protects the probe working surface from wear, provides stable couplant supply. All this assures high reliability of testing results.

Every axle structural part is tested by "its" probe what makes it possible to decrease considerably one axle testing time, and every probe construction assures complete and uniform testing of the whole testing area. At the same time, to decrease the testing duration in whole, the axle midsection is tested by four probes. Thus, 100% testing is performed for a shorter period of time.

It is worth mentioning that two SAUZK-axles systems are designed by the specialists of our company, have already been manufactured and successfully used by the customers. But we keep moving on and constantly improving and introducing "know-how" into developing testing systems.

Система автоматизированного ультразвукового контроля ЖД осей СНК ОСЬ-3

Thus, according to the normative document RD32.144-2000 the magnetic particle technique is obligatory for finishing axles of railcars wheel pairs. However, this testing type has a number of important drawbacks:

  • poor  efficiency;  
  • great cost;
  • human factor influence on testing results;
  • much manhours.

All this did not allow or substantially complicated automation of the axle surface testing. As it is obvious, to maintain large throughput, it is necessary to increase the product testing efficiency.

Taking into account the above mentioned, our specialists performed modernization of systems such as SAUZK-axles. Performed researches and experiments resulted in determination of possibility to substitute magnetic particle inspection with eddy current testing.

The absence of probes with parameters sufficient to reach the necessary sensitivity was an essential problem for eddy current testing introduction. However, this issue was solved by designing and manufacturing probes of new generation such as MDF (multidifferential). Characteristics of these ECP permitted to reach the sensitivity level that corresponds to the magnetic particle testing, and made it possible to detect defects of B-category in compliance with RD32.144-2000. Eddy current technique application by using probes such as MDF offers a number of advantages:

  • good suppression of primary electromagnetic field;
  • high resolution at wide testing area;
  • possibility of defects parameters determination.

Преобразователи системы СНК ОСЬ-3

This innovation allowed increasing the testing efficiency, decreasing the cost and improving the testing reliability.

SANK-3 system is equipped with ECP unit for the axle cylindrical surfaces testing, and also with the ECP units for hollow chamfers testing. By agreement with the customer, the possibility of the axle end surfaces testing is provided. Thus, eddy current testing assures 100% testing of the axle surface for the purpose of the surface and near-surface cracks detection.

Блоки ВТП системы СНК ОСЬ-3

Eddy current probes are situated directly on the testing sites, are connected with the switching devices each of which is able to provide switching of up to 32 channels.

Вихретоковые преобразователи системы СНК ОСЬ-3

Signals from the switching devices enter the electronic units by special cables, there they are preprocessed and accumulated.

Блоки системы СНК ОСЬ-3

On testing completion, these data are transmitted to the central computer which performs reprocessing and stores defect sections in the database. With the help of special software an operator can deeply analyze the testing results.

Интерфейс ПО системы СНК ОСЬ-3

Testing system software allows to setup every channel (probe) in a romp:

  • selection of ECP operating frequency;
  • setup of ECP operation voltage amplitude;
  • sensitivity setup;
  • threshold level setup;
  • selection of signal filtering mode.

All settings are stored in the database.

Except for the eddy current testing technique introduction, both ultrasonic testing structures and the whole system mechanism have been modernized and updated in a new "SANK-3" system. Taking into consideration the customer's requirements and wishes, the following is performed in a new system:

  • possibility of testing carrying out of both cylindrical and conical axles;
  • testing time decrease due to the axle midsection testing with the help of four ultrasonic probes;
  • pursuant to the customer's requirements, there is a possibility to change the testing scheme by using  additional probes and testing schemes;
  • couplant supply system construction update made it possible to reduce considerably the industrial oil consumption;
  • innovations introduction in the system software simplified substantially the system control and setup.

Thus, a new "SANK-3" system completely meets the requirements of the railcars wheel pairs axles testing in compliance with RD-32.144-2000. It provides 100% efficient axle testing and complete documentation of its results. It enables not only to detect defects, but to provide the manufactured axles with the quality certificate as well.  Introduction of such system on your enterprise will allow the customer to be sure in the quality of manufactured products.